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Specific Learning Disability (SLD)

Specific Learning Disability (SLD)

(a) “Specific learning disability” means a disorder in one (1) or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that adversely affect the student's educational performance, including conditions referred to, or previously referred to, as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. As follows, a specific learning disability: (1) Manifests itself when the student does not achieve adequately for the student's age or to meet state approved grade level standards in one (1) or more of the following areas, when provided with learning experiences and instruction appropriate for the student's age or state approved grade level standards: (A) Reading disability, which is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin and has a continuum of severity. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate or fluent, or both, word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. A reading disability may be due to difficulties in the following: (i) Basic reading skills. (ii) Reading fluency skills. (iii) Reading comprehension. (B) Written expression disability, which is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin and has a continuum of severity. Written expression is a complex domain that requires the integration of the following: (i) Oral language. (ii) Written language. (iii) Cognition. (iv) Motor skills. (C) Math disability, which is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin and has a continuum of severity. The ability to perform mathematical computations and reasoning requires multiple core cognitive processes. A math disability may be due to difficulties in the following: (i) Mathematics calculation. (ii) Mathematics problem solving. (D) Oral expression disability, which is a specific learning disability that: (i) is neurological in origin; (ii) has a continuum of severity; and (iii) is characterized by deficits in using expressive language processes to mediate learning of: (AA) reading; (BB) writing; (CC) spelling; or (DD) mathematics; skills. (E) Listening comprehension disability, which is a specific learning disability that: (i) is neurological in origin; (ii) has a continuum of severity; and (iii) is characterized by difficulties in using receptive language processes to mediate learning of: (AA) reading; (BB) writing; (CC) spelling; or (DD) mathematics; skills. (2) Can be evidenced through either of the following: (A) Insufficient progress to meet age or state approved grade level standards in one (1) or more of the areas identified in subdivision (1) when using a process based on the student's response to scientific, research based intervention. (B) A pattern of strengths and weaknesses in performance or achievement, or both, relative to: (i) age; (ii) state approved grade level standards; or (iii) intellectual development; that is determined by the group to be relevant to the identification of a specific learning disability. The multidisciplinary team is prohibited from using a severe discrepancy between academic achievement and global cognitive functioning to meet this requirement. (3) Does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of any of the following: (A) A visual, hearing, or motor disability. (B) A cognitive disability. (C) An emotional disability. (D) Cultural factors. (E) Environmental or economic disadvantage. (F) Limited English proficiency. (G) Lack of appropriate instruction in reading or math evidenced by the following: (i) Data demonstrating that prior to, or part of, the referral process, the student was provided appropriate instruction in general education settings, delivered by qualified personnel. (ii) Data based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the student's parents.
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